i. Design or data collection/analysis

To qualify as an author, one must have been substantially involved in either:

  • Conception/design of the work OR
  • Data collection or data analysis/interpretation. 

These parts of the process are highlighted in blue, in the research timeline below.

NB: Substantial is not defined on the ICMJE website.

To cite this work: Baker L, Friesen F, Ng S. Authorship Ethics. An Online Supplement. [Internet]. 2018. Available from

Centre for Faculty Development, University of Toronto at St. Michael's Hospital.