iii. Final approval

To qualify as an author, one must have been involved in:

  • final approval of the version to be published. 

A note on acknowledgments

No one, other than the listed authors, should have contributed substantially to the writing and revising of the manuscript.

Contributions from individuals who do not qualify for authorship (i.e. do not meet requirements 1-3) should be mentioned in the Acknowledgments section. Acknowledgement examples may include: individuals who allowed their clinical experience to be included, a person who provided purely technical help, copyediting, proofreading, or a department Chair/project manager who provided only general support. 

 The Acknowledgments may also detail special thanks, personal assistance, and dedications. 

To cite this work: Baker L, Friesen F, Ng S. Authorship Ethics. An Online Supplement. [Internet]. 2018. Available from

Centre for Faculty Development, University of Toronto at St. Michael's Hospital.